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    商业模式创新的四种方法(一)

    Four Methods of Business Model Innovation(1)

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    核心提示:按照IBM商业研究所和哈佛商学院克利斯坦森教授(Christensen)的观点,商业模式就是一个企业的基本经营方法(method of doing business)。它包含四部分: 用户价值定义(customer value proposition), 利润公式(profit formula), 产业定位(value chain location),核心资源和流程(key resources &processes)。
    按照IBM商业研究所和哈佛商学院克利斯坦森教授(Christensen)的观点,商业模式就是一个企业的基本经营方法(method of doing business)。它包含四部分: 用户价值定义(customer value proposition), 利润公式(profit formula), 产业定位(value chain location),核心资源和流程(key resources &processes)。

    商业模式创新就是对企业以上的基本经营方法进行变革。一般而言,有四种方法:改变收入模式(revenue model innovation),改变企业模式(enterprise model),改变产业模式(industry model innovation)和改变技术模式(technology-driven innovation)。

    改变收入模式就是改变一个企业的用户价值定义和相应的利润方程或收入模型。这就需要企业从确定用户的新需求入手。这并非是市场营销范畴中的寻找用户新需求,而是从更宏观的层面重新定义用户需求,即去深刻理解用户购买你的产品需要完成的任务或要实现的目标是什么。其实,用户要完成一项任务需要的不仅是产品,而是一个解决方案(solution)。一旦确认了此解决方案,也就确定了新的用户价值定义,并可依次进行商业模式创新。

    国际知名电钻企业喜利得公司(Hilti)就从此角度找到用户新需求,并重新确认用户价值定义。喜利得一直以向建筑行业提供各类高端工业电钻著称,但近年来,全球激烈竞争使电钻成为低利标准产品(commodity)。于是,喜利得通过专注于用户所需要完成的工作,意识到它们真正需要的不是电钻,而是在正确的时间和地点获得处于最佳状态的电钻。然而,用户缺乏对大量复杂电钻的综合管理能力,经常造成工期延误。因此,喜利得随即改动它的用户价值定义,不再出售而出租电钻,并向用户提供电钻的库存、维修和保养等综合管理服务。喜利得公司变革其商业模式,从硬件制造商变为服务提供商,并把制造向第三方转移,同时改变盈利模式。戴尔,沃尔玛,道康宁(Dow Corning),Zara,Netflix和Ryanair等都是如此而进行商业模式创新。(中国进出口网

    As IBM Business Institute and Harvard Business School professor Christensen said, a company's business model is the basic method of doing business), which contains four parts: customer value proposition, profit formula, value chain location, key resources & processes.

    Business model innovation is to change the basic operation methods of enterprises. In general, there are four ways: the revenue model innovation, enterprise model changing, the industry model innovation, and technology-driven innovation.

    To change the revenue model is to change the definition of an enterprise’s customer value and the corresponding profit equation or revenue model. This requires companies to determine the user's new demands from the start. This is not looking for the new demands of users in the marketing category, but redefining the user needs in a more macro level, which is a deep understanding of what tasks users need to accomplish or what goals users want to achieve when buying your product. In fact, when users complete a task, they require not only the product, but a solution. once //confirm/i/ied, this solution will determine the new user-defined value, and turn the business model innovation.

    From this point, Internationally renowned drill enterprises company Hilti to find the new users’ needs and re-confirm the user-defined value. Hilti has been providing a wide range of high-end industry drills for the construction industry, but in recent years, global competition makes drills become low-interest standard commodity. Thus, by focusing on what needs to be done by users, Hilti realized that what users really want is not a drill, but to get a drill in the best state at the right time and place. However, users have no enough integrated management capabilities of a large number of complex drills, which often results in schedule delays. Accordingly, Hilti immediately changes its user-defined value, no longer sells but rents drill, provides integrated management services such as drill inventory, repair and maintenance. Hilti changes its business model from the hardware manufacturer into a service provider, transfers manufacturing to third parties, and changes the profit model. Dell, Wal-Mart, Dow Corning, Zara, Netflix and Ryanair all make commercial model innovation like this.
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